Terminology Used On This Site

Terminology Used on This Site


These are lines that appear under the columns. Once thought to be the duplication of the fluting in the columns, it was later discovered that they were created by the die dragging over the hub. It is the high point on the hub, formed by the junction of the Memorial building floor and the columns and/or the point formed by the fluting and the column base, that digs into the die as it moves, thus producing a fading line as the pressure from the hub decreases. These lines can be seen under all columns; however, under columns 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, it will more likely be seen as step deviation. Fluting lines tend to be most obvious under columns 1, 2, 3, 10, 11 and 12.



This is the actual bending or distortion seen on the stairs as the fluting line passes through it. As the die moves over the hub, the high points smash into the levels on the stairs, bending them in the opposite direction of the die movement. This causes the steps to appear wavy. The picture below illustrates this effect.


This is the direction, given in degrees that the trail line is moving in. This indication of movement is directly opposite from the movement of the die across the hub face. Example; if the trail line is moving in the direction of 180 degrees (determined by the strongest to the weakest point on that line), then the die moved in the direction of 000 degrees to create that line. The below picture shows an offset direction of the fluting lines under columns 2 and 3 to be 190 degrees, indicating that the die moved in the direction of 010 degrees.


This term is used to describe the affects of the fluting lines as they pass through the Memorial building’s stairs. Wavy steps is a trail die and can only be found on the reverse die of the Lincoln cent and then only on the stairs below the columns. The picture below is a strong wavy step die.


This term is used to describe dies that have a series of parallel, tapered lines, in either one or two directions. Trails can be found on every modern denominational coin. This term includes the die anomaly called wavy steps.


This is a trail line that crosses over a design element. It can be generated from the same design element or another design element.